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Croatia and Serbia are two Balkan states that will see increased defence budgets in 2018 with a focus on air defence. Croatia, unlike Serbia, is a member of the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Serbia is taking steps to join the EU, but has no desire at present to join NATO and wishes to remain militarily neutral. It is however a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace programme and continues to have political dialogue and cooperation with NATO on democratic, institutional, and defence reforms. Serbia’s opposition of Kosovo’s declaration as a sovereign and independent state will continue to influence any alliances and membership.


Multi-role combat aircraft have been on Croatia’s procurement agenda for some time and although delayed for 15 years, eventually moved forward in October with proposals from Greece, Israel, Sweden, and the U.S. The winning bid will bolster technological and industrial development, employment growth, and investment. On 7 September, Croatia approved the purchase of AGM-114 Hellfire missiles to arm 16 of its Bell OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopters donated by the U.S, a deal worth around $3 million. In 2018, the ministry of defence is set to receive around $67 million more, of which $54 million is earmarked for fighter jets.


Whilst Serbia partakes in EU accession negotiations it is also strengthening military ties with Russia, however former Serbian President, Tomislav Nikolić, previously stated that Serbia’s alliance with Russia would not compromise its EU membership aspirations regardless of tensions over Kosovo’s status. Serbia’s relationship with Russia allows for increased military and economic development without the conditions usually imposed by Western economic institutions. These ties were evident when Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić met with Russian President Vladimir Putin in December to discuss military cooperation. Possible arms purchases from Russia are six MI-17 helicopters, supplies of Buk-M1 and Buk-M2 missile systems, the delivery of six additional MiG-29 fighter jets, and S-300 air-defence systems (either from Russia directly or Belarus). In October, the Serbian Air Force received six older model MiG-29 fighter jets with Russia indicating the further donation of 30 used battle tanks and 30 armoured vehicles.


In 2018, Serbia’s defence budget is to increase by RSD11.6 billion (around $114 million) or 19.7% to RSD70.5 billion (around $700 million). The increased defence budget will allow for the procurement of the versatile H145M helicopter and the upgrading of ten MiG-29 fighter jets. Further, the ministry of defence is looking to acquire locally produced Lazar 3 eight-wheel drive armoured vehicles and Milos unmanned ground vehicles. The Serbian Army is soon to be equipped with 9mm Glock 17 handguns and 5.56mm FN Minimi light machine guns.




Written by Sylvia Caravotas (Satovarac Consulting) for OIDA


The Peruvian Ministry of Defence (Ministerio de Defensa) is comprised of the following military branches:

  • Peruvian Army (Ejército del Perú)
  • Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú)
  • Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea del Perú)

Peru faces a number of internal and external concerns which drive its defence budget such as ageing equipment, threats from the Shining Path guerrilla group, narco-terrorists, drugs, weapons, and human traffickers, international peacekeeping missions, natural disaster assistance (humanitarian aid), and tense relations with its neighbours, Chile for example. Future purchases will more than likely be made on multi-role, training, and transport aircraft, frigates, and main battle tanks. For fiscal year 2018, the defence sector will see a budget allocation of more than $2.300 million, an increase from 2017.



Modernizing equipment and acquiring new and used equipment is high on Peru’s defence agenda despite procurement hiccups. An example of this is the acquisition of SIGINT equipment for two Fokker 50 aircraft (previously belonging to the Royal Netherlands Air Force), which fell through due to compliance issues involving documentation to be submitted by bidders. The government is looking to spend around $24.9 million and has asked interested companies to submit their proposals by December 26, 2017.


The Peruvian Navy plays an important role in the Pacific Ocean, which is why the Peruvian Coast Guard recently selected the Israeli-made Typhoon Mk-30c gun from Rafael Advanced Defense Systems for it Rio Pativilca class. The Typhoon Mk-30c is equipped with a 30mm Mk44 with a firing rate of up to 200 rounds per minute. With its multi-mission capability, the gun can be used against drone threats and can operate over a 24-hour period in surveillance mode.

ARMS EXPORTS TO PERU – 2014-2016 (in $ million)

COUNTRIES EXPORTING TO PERU – 2014-2016 (in $ million)  

Written by Sylvia Caravotas (Satovarac Consulting) for OIDA


Tecnam, based in Capua, Italy, is the world’s second-largest General Aviation aircraft manufacturer and has been in business since 1948 offering more than 33 models and variants of single and twin engine, and Light Sport Aircraft (LSA). The company is well known worldwide and recently announced that they are establishing a corporate subsidiary in Australia. In March 2017, Tecnam lost their founder, president, chief preliminary design officer, and indeed an aviation pioneer Luigi “Gino” Pascale, at the age of 93.

The two-seater Tecnam P92 has been the company’s most popular design with more than 2,500 taking to the skies worldwide. In the first three quarters of 2017, Tecnam shipped 132 aircraft worth $31.5 million, with light sport models and the P2006T being the popular choice. In October and November 2017, Tecnam U.S. completed delivery of three out of 30 P2006T twin-engine aircraft with Special Mission Platform (SMP) configuration. The aircraft are part of an order (24 month delivery contract) for a geospatial data acquisition company that is modernizing its fleet. There is an option for 24 additional P2006T (SMP) following delivery of the first 30. Tecnam CEO Paolo Pascale, stated that the P2006T is the right platform to bring geospatial data sensing up to date.

The P2006T is also assisting NASA in an experimental electric plane concept – the X-57. The X-57 is a modified P2006T powered by an electric propulsion system. An existing aircraft design is used so that data from the baseline model, powered by traditional combustion engines, can be compared to data produced by the same model powered by electric propulsion. NASA engineers are then able to measure precisely the increase in efficiency through the electric system.

In April 2017, Tecnam announced upgrades to three of its aircraft – the P2010, P2006T Twin, and P2002 Sierra. The P2010 will now come with a Lycoming IO-390 engine and a VP prop as well as Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out and the G1000 Nxi flight deck (optional). As of 2015, only ADS-B Out is mandated by the FAA, which states that all aircraft operating in designated airspace must be equipped with ADS-B Out by January 1, 2020. The P2006T twin, the company’s top-selling aircraft, now comes with the Garmin G1000 Nxi next-generation flight deck, ADS-B Out, and a new seat design. The latest version of the P2002 LSA will feature the Rotax 915 iS/iSC 135-HP engine, which offers full take-off power of up to at least 15,000 feet and a service ceiling of 23,000 feet.

Other deliveries on the cards are the Tecnam P2010 for the Government Flying Training School (GFTS) in Jakkur, Bangalore, India, which is set to arrive in mid-January 2018. The P2010 is a four-seat, single engine light aircraft of mixed metal and carbon-fibre construction with a range of 600 nautical miles and a cruising speed of around 250km/h. In September 2017, Cape Air, based in Massachusetts, U.S., and Tecnam announced an agreement for the delivery of the first 20 out of an order of 100 P2012 Traveller aircraft. The P2012 Travellers are expected to enter service in early 2019 and will replace the Cessna 402. The P2012 Traveller was Luigi Pascale’s final design.




Written by Sylvia Caravotas (Satovarac Consulting) for OIDA


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